The Beginning of Renewal and Religious Reform in Indonesia: Tawḥīd Purification

  • Syahril Syahril Universitas Muhammadiyah Bandung
  • Rustamadji Rustamadji Universitas Pendidikan Muhammadiyah Sorong
  • Bulkani Bulkani Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya
  • Zainur Wula Universitas Muhammadiyah Kupang
Keywords: renewal, reformation, Muhammadiyah, purification

Abstract

This article discusses religious reforms and reforms in Indonesia which are linked to the forerunner to the birth of Muhammadiyah. Using a library survey, this article found that the reform movement in Indonesia began to occur in the early 20th century and could not be separated from the birth of Muhammadiyah. In this context, the renewal of Islam in Indonesia through Muhammadiyah is inseparable from the thoughts of Middle Eastern figures, such as Ibn Taymiyah and Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab, especially in the aspect of creed (tawḥīd) in the form of purification.This article presents the idea that renewal and reform are a dynamic movement and is still needed in the context of national development as a form of continuity of awareness in modern society.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abdullah, M. A. (1995). Falsafah Kalam di Era Postmodernisme. Pustaka Pelajar.

Ahmed, M. A.-B. (1997). Impact of the Historical Settings of Ibn Tayhiyah on His Program of Reform [Ph.D Thesis]. The Ohio State University.

Akasoy, A. (2012). Andalusi Exceptionalism: The Example of “Philosophical Sufism” and the Significance of 1212. Journal of Medieval Iberian Studies, 4(1), 113–117. https://doi.org/10.1080/17546559.2012.677197

al-Dhahabī, S. al-D. A. ‘Abdillāh M. ibn A. al-Dimashqī. (2013). Tarjamat Shaykh al-Islām Ibn Taymiyyah (K. b. S. b. ‘Alī al-Rib’ī, Ed.). al-Risālat al-‘Ālamiyyah.

al-Qannūjī, Ṣiddīq b. Ḥasan. (1978). Abjad al-‘Ulūm (‘Abd al-Jabbār al-Zakkār, Ed.; Vol. 3). Dār al-Kutub al- ‘Alamiyyah.

Al-Atawneh, M. (2010). Wahhābī Islam Facing the Challenges of Modernity: Dār al-Iftā in the Modern Saudi State. BRILL.

Al-Karasneh, S. M., & Saleh, A. M. J. (2010). Islamic Perspective of Creativity: A Model for Teachers of Social Studies as Leaders. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 412–426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.036

Al-Matroudi, A. H. I. (2006). The Hanbali School of Law and Ibn Taymiyyah: Conflict Or Conciliation. Routledge.

Antrim, Z. G. (2015). The Politics of Place in the Works of Ibn Taymīyah and Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī. Mamlūk Studies Review, XVIII(2014–15), 92–111. https://doi.org/10.6082/M1XP733B

Bachtiar, H. (2015). Ne-Sufisme Muhammadiyah dalam Artikulasi Teoretika. In H. Bachtiar (Ed.), Diskursus Neo-Sufisme Muhammadiyah: Genealogi, Konstruksi dan Manifestasi. UMMPress.

Badawi, N. (2019). Islamic Jurisprudence on the Regulation of Armed Conflict: Text and Context. BRILL.

Baidhawy, Z. (2010). The Problem of Multiculturalism: Radicalism Mainstreaming Through Religious Preaching in Surakarta. Journal of Indonesian Islam, 4(2), 268-286–286. https://doi.org/10.15642/JIIS.2010.4.2.268-286

Berkey, J. P., & Berkey, J. P. (2003). The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800. Cambridge University Press.

Bosworth, C. E. (2014). New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh University Press.

Bowering, G. (2015). Islamic Political Thought: An Introduction. Princeton University Press.

Buckley, P. J., & Pérez, P. F. (2016). The Role of History in International Business in Southern Europe. Journal of Evolutionary Studies in Business, 1(2), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1344/jesb2016.2.j010

Campo, J. E. (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing.

Ch, M. N. A. (2010). Matahari Pembaruan: Rekam Jejak K.H. Ahmad Dahlan. JB Publisher.

Commins, D. D. (2006). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B. Tauris.

Connaway, L. S., & Radford, M. L. (2016). Research Methods in Library and Information Science (6th ed.). ABC-CLIO.

Dobbin, C. (1974). Islamic Revivalism in Minangkabau at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century. Modern Asian Studies, 8(3), 319–345. JSTOR.

El-Tobgui, C. S. (2019). Ibn Taymiyya: Life, Times, and Intellectual Profile. In C. S. El-Tobgui (Ed.), Ibn Taymiyya on Reason and Revelation (pp. 78–131). Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004412866_005

Esposito, J. L. (2010). The Future of Islam. Oxford University Press.

Fancy, N. (2013). Science and Religion in Mamluk Egypt: Ibn al-Nafis, Pulmonary Transit and Bodily Resurrection. Routledge.

Fouad, H. (2020). Unveiling the Innovators—A Glimpse on Sufi-Salafi Polemics. Religions, 11(3), 144. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11030144

Golan, A. (2003). Prehistoric Religion: Mythology, Symbolism. Ariel Golan.

Haddad, G. F. (2015). The Biographies of the Elite Lives of the Scholars, Imams & Hadith Masters: Biographies of the Imams & Scholars. Zulfiqar Ayub.

Hallaq, W. B. (1984). Was the Gate of Ijtihad Closed? International Journal of Middle East Studies, 16(1), 3–41. JSTOR.

Hasan, I. (2017, March 21). Salafi Movement Orientation in Indonesia. 4 Th International Conference the Community Development in ASEAN. Community Development in ASEAN.

Hitti, P. K. (1970). History of the Arabs. Macmillan International Higher Education.

Homerin, Th. E. (1985). Ibn Taimīya’s al-Ṣūfīyah wa-al-Fuqarāʾ. Arabica, 32(2), 219–244. JSTOR.

Hoover, J. (2007). Ibn Taymiyya’s Theodicy of Perpetual Optimism. BRILL.

Hoover, J. (2019). Ibn Taymiyya. Simon and Schuster.

Hoover, J. (2020). Early Mamlūk Ashʿarism against Ibn Taymiyya on the Nonliteral Reinterpretation (taʾwīl) of God’s Attributes. In A. Shihadeh & J. Thiele (Eds.), Philosophical Theology in Islam: Later Ashʿarism East and West. Brill. https://brill.com/view/title/55398

Isakhan, B., & Zarandona, J. A. G. (2018). Layers of Religious and Political Iconoclasm Under the Islamic State: Symbolic Sectarianism and Pre-Monotheistic Iconoclasm. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 24(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527258.2017.1325769

Kartodirdjo, S. (1988). Pengantar Sejarah Indonesia Baru: 1500-1900 Volume 1. Gramedia.

Khan, M. M. (2009). The Muslim 100: The Lives, Thoughts and Achievements of the Most Influential Muslims in History. Kube Publishing Ltd.

Kurniawan, A. F., Hasan, N., & Arifin, A. Z. (2019). Wali and Karama: A Discourse and Authority Contestation in al-Tarmasi’s Bughyat al-Adhkiya’. Al-Jami’ah: Journal of Islamic Studies, 57(2), 287–328. https://doi.org/10.14421/ajis.2019.572.%p

Leaman, O. (2015). The Biographical Encyclopedia of Islamic Philosophy. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Leo, R. A. (2017). The Reverend and the Shaykh: Jonathan Edwards, Muḥammad Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb and the Encounter of Eighteenth-Century Conservatism in New England and Najd [Ph.D Thesis]. Centre for Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies School of Philosophy, Theology and Religion College of Arts and Law University of Birmingham.

Mann, T. (1998). The Oxford Guide to Library Research. Oxford University Press.

Masyharuddin. (2006). Pandangan Ibn Taimiyah tentang Pemikiran Islam (Studi Pembaruan Aspek Tasawuf) [Doctoral, Program Pascasarjana UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta]. http://digilib.uin-suka.ac.id/14425/

Maududi, M. S. A. A. (2009). A Short History of the Revivalist Movement in Islam (AI-Ash’ari, Trans.). Markazi Maktaba Islami.

Mirza, Y. Y. (2012). Ibn Kathīr (d. 774/1373): His Intellectual Circle, Major Works and Qur’ānic Exegesis [Ph.D Thesis]. The Faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences of Georgetown University.

Mohamad, G. (2015). Text and Faith: A discourse on God is a discourse that inevitably only completes itself again “in a new silence”. Tempo Publishing.

Mugiyono. (2013). Perkembangan Pemikiran dan Peradaban Islam dalam Perspektif Sejarah. Jurnal Ilmu Agama: Mengkaji Doktrin, Pemikiran, dan Fenomena Agama, 14(1), 1–20.

Mulkhan, A. M. (2010). Kiai Ahmad Dahlan: Jejak Pembaruan Sosial dan Kemanusiaan: Kado Satu Abad Muhammadiyah. Kompas.

Nashir, H. (2008). Purifikasi Islam dalam Gerakan Padri di Minangkabau. UNISIA, 31(69), Article 69. https://doi.org/10.20885/unisia.vol31.iss69.art1

Nashir, H. (2010). Muhammadiyah Gerakan Pembaruan. Suara Muhammadiyah.

Nawab, M., & Osman, M. (2014). Salafi Ulama in UMNO: Political Convergence or Expediency? Contemporary Southeast Asia, 36(2), 206–231. JSTOR.

Ott, B. (2016). Understanding and Developing Theological Education. Langham Global Library.

Pavlin, james. (2013). Sunni Kalām and Theological Controversies. In S. H. Nasr & O. Leaman (Eds.), History of Islamic Philosophy. Routledge.

Priatna, A., & Hakim, A. F. (2013). Nama & Kisah Pahlawan Indonesia: Dari masa VOC, Belanda, Jepang, hingga masa Pembangunan. AnakKita.

Rafiabadi, H. N. (2003). World Religions and Islam: A Critical Study. Sarup & Sons.

Rafik, A. (2019). Islam and Modernity: An Unfinished Project. Afro-Middle East Centre.

Rustom, M. (2018). What is Tafsīr al-Qurʾān bi’l-Qurʾān? THE JOURNAL OF SCRIPTURAL REASONING, 17(1).

Saeed, A. (2016). Salafiya, Modernism, and Revival. In J. L. Esposito & E. E.-D. Shahin (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics. Oxford University Press.

Sholikhin, M. (2010). Ritual dan Tradisi Islam Jawa: Ritual-Ritual Dan Tradisi-Tradisi tentang Kehamilan, Kelahiran, Pernikahan, dan Kematian dalam Kehidupan Sehari-Hari Masyarakat Islam Jawa. Penerbit Narasi.

Wiktorowicz, Q. (2005). A Genealogy of Radical Islam. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 28(2), 75–97. https://doi.org/10.1080/10576100590905057

Published
2020-05-23